Quality Guarantee Icon
100% risk-free guarantee
Put us to the test. Love us or we’ll refund you. No quibbles.
Learn more
Back to examples

A Guide to Ground Rent in 2023

Did you know that ground rent, a centuries-old practice, continues to impact the lives of leaseholders today?

In this guide, we will delve into the world of ground rent, exploring its origins, its impact on the property market, and recent legislative changes designed to reshape the landscape for leaseholders in England and Wales.

While ground rent can be complex, this guide will help you to discover how understanding this often-misunderstood aspect of property ownership can make a real difference.

What you need to know...

  • Understanding ground rent is important for leaseholders due to the Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022 and its implications.
  • Ground rent payments are applicable when owned on a ‘share of freehold’ basis, with fixed or escalating amounts depending on the terms of the lease agreement.
  • Legal action may be taken against non-payment, while lease extension processes can provide significant benefits such as zero future ground rents and extended leases without additional cost.

Understanding Ground Rent: Basics and Terminology

Ground rent, a property industry term rooted in history, remains a pertinent aspect of the leasehold system in England and Wales.

Leasehold properties differ from freehold properties in that they are held by a tenant for a predetermined duration, while freehold properties are fully owned by the proprietor, including the land on which the property sits.

Ground rent is an annual rental payment made by residential long leaseholders to their landlord and is a key component of leasehold agreements. However, the ground rent landscape has been changing, with the introduction of the Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022, which seeks to make home ownership fairer and more transparent for future leaseholders.

The infamous Ground Rent Scandal brought attention to unfair landlord charges ground rent, with some freeholders accused of excessively increasing ground rent, leaving leaseholders struggling to afford charges and sell their properties.

Ground rent is typically invoiced annually, but lease agreements may include escalating ground rents that increase at predetermined intervals, leading to financial strain for leaseholders when ground rent demanded becomes unmanageable. This is clearly an unforeseen expense, and not many residents are able to keep up with this, particularly in the cost of living crisis.

Leaseholders must, however, understand the distinction between ground rent and service charges. Ground rent is a payment to the landlord, while service charges take care of expenses for maintaining the building or its grounds.

Leasehold vs. Freehold

To understand ground rent, one must differentiate between leasehold and freehold property ownership.

In a leasehold property, the leaseholder owns the property for a predetermined period, as specified in the lease, but does not own the land on which the property rests. This is usually 100 years or more, much longer than the resident will actually be on the site.

Ground rent is a regular payment made by leaseholders to the freeholder or landlord in exchange for occupying the land on which the property has been built.

Leaseholders may have the option to buy the freehold of their property, thus eliminating ground rent payments.

In contrast, freehold ownership entails owning the property and the land on which it resides for an indefinite period. Freehold properties typically do not have ground rent payments, except if the property is owned on a ‘share of freehold’ basis.

The Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022 aims to reform ground rent practices, making home ownership fairer and more transparent for leaseholders by limiting ground rent charges and ensuring that properties with shorter leases are still attractive to potential home buyers.

The Role of Ground Rent in Leaseholds

Ground rent serves as a payment for leasing land, and it has been a key aspect of leasehold agreements since the 1920s when long leases with ground rents were first introduced.

Ground rent fees are imposed upon leaseholders by the freeholder as a condition of the lease for the land on which the property is built.

The Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022 has abolished ground rent for new leases of flats and houses in England and Wales, and instituted a cap on ground rent for existing leases to protect homeowners from ever-rising charges.

While these changes are in place, failing to pay ground rent may result in legal action against the leaseholder, including potential eviction.

Leaseholders can obtain legal advice and support from a solicitor or other legal professionals knowledgeable in handling leasehold matters to help them navigate ground rent issues and disputes.

Ground Rent Calculation and Types of Ground Rent

There are two primary types of ground rent calculations: fixed and escalating. Fixed ground rent remains constant throughout the lease, while escalating ground rent increases at predetermined intervals.

Leaseholders should be aware that the type of ground rent calculation—fixed or escalating—can significantly influence their financial commitments under the lease agreement.

This can also have an impact on them selling their property in the future, and should be considered when buying. We will now look in more detail at each type of ground rent.

Fixed Ground Rent

Fixed ground rent in a leasehold agreement is a set amount of rent that the leaseholder is obliged to pay to the freeholder for the entire duration of the lease.

The amount of fixed ground rent is determined by the freeholder and can range from £200 to £500 per annum for modern flats. It remains constant throughout the term of the lease, providing predictability for leaseholders and allowing them to budget accordingly.

This also can be passed on to potential future buyers, who will have a definitive amount they need to pay in ground rent each year.

Escalating Ground Rent

Escalating ground rent, on the other hand, is a payment that increases incrementally over a period of time, often resulting in financial hardship for leaseholders and could lead to potential issues when selling the property in future.

Common examples of escalating ground rent clauses in lease agreements include:

  • Ground rent doubling every 10 years
  • Ground rent increasing in accordance with a recognisable and published formula such as the retail prices index
  • Ground rent clauses causing rents to increase exponentially
  • Property price-linked escalation clauses

Given that escalating ground rent could lead to financial strain, leaseholders should meticulously go through and comprehend their existing lease agreement prior to signing it to ensure that they are going into the agreement with their eyes open.

Ground Rent Payment and Responsibilities

Both leaseholders and landlords have responsibilities related to ground rent payments. Leaseholders are required to make ground rent payments to the landlord as stipulated in the lease agreement.

Landlords, on the other hand, must provide clear information about ground rent charges and payment schedules.

For a good leasehold relationship, both parties should be fully aware of these responsibilities and landlords should not hide information about the charges to ensure a smooth transaction when the tenant is purchasing their home.

Leaseholder Obligations

Leaseholder obligations regarding ground rent payments include:

  • Paying the ground rent punctually and in the frequency outlined in the lease
  • Understanding that failing to pay ground rent may result in legal action being taken against the leaseholder, including penalties such as forfeiture action, breach of lease terms, and potential loss of the property.

Leaseholders can determine their ground rent obligations by consulting their lease agreement, which will set out all the parameters and requirements, including the sum of ground rent to be paid and the payment interval.

Leaseholders need to carefully examine their lease agreement to understand their ground rent obligations. It may even be a good idea to get a legal professional to look over these for you.

The Impact of the Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022

The Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022 has brought significant changes to the ground rent landscape in England and Wales.

The Act abolishes ground rent for qualifying new leaseholds commencing from 30th June 2022, and it establishes a cap on ground rent for existing leases.

The goal of this leasehold reform housing legislation, influenced by the Urban Development Act 1993, is to promote fairer and more transparent home ownership for leaseholders, thus alleviating the burden of excessive ground rent charges.

This new act should ensure that landlords cannot unfairly charge tenants and that no one loses out.

Key Provisions of the Act

The Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022 stipulates that landlords are not permitted to demand ground rent for qualifying new leaseholds from 30th June 2022.

It also establishes a maximum amount of ground rent that can be charged for new leases at ‘an annual rent of one peppercorn’, which is the equivalent of zero financial value.

This peppercorn limit applies to new residential leases granted on or after 30 June 2022. For leases of retirement homes, this limit applies on or after 1 April 2023.

Dealing with Ground Rent Issues and Disputes

Ground rent issues and disputes can be complex and challenging for leaseholders.

Understanding the consequences of non-payment and the importance of seeking legal advice and support can greatly benefit those facing ground rent difficulties.

It is crucial for leaseholders to be aware of their rights and obligations under their lease agreement and to consult legal professionals when necessary, and not try and take on these issues alone with no experience.

Non-Payment Consequences

The potential consequences of non-payment of ground rent are serious and can include forfeiture action, breach of lease terms, legal action to recover arrears, and potential loss of the property.

Additionally, non-payment of ground rent can have an adverse effect on one’s credit score, as a County Court Judgment (CCJ) may be issued against the individual, which will be documented in their credit report and can detrimentally affect their capacity to acquire credit in the future.

To avoid such repercussions, leaseholders must prioritise paying ground rent the same as their mortgage or other household expenditure.

Seeking Legal Advice and Support

Leaseholders facing ground rent issues and disputes should seek legal advice and support.

Legal professionals who are experienced in handling leasehold matters can provide invaluable advice and guidance, including:

  • Helping leaseholders understand their rights and obligations under their lease agreement
  • Interpreting legal documents related to ground rent charges
  • Evaluating the legitimacy of ground rent charges

Furthermore, a legal advisor can assist in negotiations with the other party, represent clients in mediation or arbitration proceedings, and if necessary, take the dispute to court.

Their expertise in leasehold and property law enables them to develop successful strategies for resolving ground rent disputes and safeguarding the interests of their clients.

Lease Extensions and Buying Out Ground Rent

Lease extensions and buying out ground rent are two options for leaseholders seeking to reduce or eliminate ground rent payments. Both options involve a process that can be complex and time-consuming, but they can provide significant benefits for leaseholders.

Here's everything you need to know about these two options...

Lease Extension Process

The statutory lease extensions process involves extending the duration of a leasehold property, potentially impacting ground rent payments.

To be eligible for a lease extension, the initial lease must have been granted for a period exceeding 21 years, and ownership of the property must have been held for a minimum of two years.

The Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022 affects the lease extension process by stipulating that future ground rents are to be set to zero, meaning that leaseholders have the entitlement to extend their leases without incurring any ground rent.

The duration of a lease extension process can vary, but it usually takes between 3 and 12 months to finalise.

Purchasing a Share of the Freehold

Purchasing a share of the freehold involves acquiring a portion of the freehold, which can effectively eliminate ground rent payments.

Once a share of the freehold is obtained, the leaseholder is no longer obliged to pay ground rent and can collectively decide on ground rents or even reduce it to a peppercorn, essentially making the payment negligible.

Additionally, owning a share of the freehold allows leaseholders to extend their residential long leases for no cost, typically up to 999 years, which can be a real bonus for potential buyers in the future.


In conclusion, understanding the complexities of ground rent is crucial for leaseholders navigating the property market in England and Wales.

From the basics and terminology to the impact of the Leasehold Reform (Ground Rent) Act 2022, being informed about ground rent can make a significant difference in the lives of leaseholders.

As legislation continues to evolve and reshape the landscape of leasehold property ownership, staying up-to-date with changes and seeking professional advice when necessary can help ensure a more transparent, fair, and manageable experience for leaseholders and is highly recommended for those with little experience in the area.

Our content delivers

Dependable content, every time, with results to shout about.

We've helped customers:
Reach #1 on Google
Significantly increase website traffic
Get picked up by global press
Convert more leads
5 Stars

“The quality of content exceeded expectations, the platform is user-friendly, and the service has been fantastic.”

Charli Q.
Director of Client Services, Bluesoup
5 Stars

"Conturae has done more than just write for us - they've learned our voice, understood our ethos, and created content that feels uniquely ours."

Chris N.
Founder, Taxtful
5 Stars

“Really pleased with how the team have helped me. They’re really helpful and polite, which makes a huge difference to the experience."

Jodie F.
Founder & CEO, Fraser Allen Estate Management
5 Stars

“Working with Conturae has really enhanced our content output. We love the combination of AI tech and human attention to detail.”

Emily P.
Performance Marketing Director, Green Ginger Digital
Quality Guarantee Icon

Put us to the test, 100% risk-free

Love us or we’ll refund you, no quibbles. If after a few rounds of revisions you’re not absolutely loving your content, your money will be back in your pocket quicker than you can figure out how to pronounce Conturae*

*our legal team told us we have to state it takes 3-5 business days for refund to arrive. Party poopers.
Get started